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The inclusion of this line in an input file directs SPICE to determine the DC operating point of a circuit with inductors shorted and capacitors opened. Note: a DC analysis is automatically performed prior to a transient analysis to determine initial conditions, and prior to an AC small-signal, Noise, and Pole-Zero analysis to determine the linearized, small-signal models for nonlinear devices.
If this line is included in the input file, SPICE performs an AC analysis of the circuit over a specified frequency range. DEC stands for decade variation, and ND is the number of points per decade. OCT stands for octave variation, and NO is the number of points per octave. LIN stands for linear variation, and NP is the number of points. Fstart is the starting frequency, and Fstop is the final frequency. Note: In order for this analysis to be meaningful, at least one independent source must have been specified with an ac value.
The Disto simulation command does a small-signal distortion analysis of a circuit. A multi-dimensional Volterra series analysis is done using multi-dimensional Taylor series to represent the nonlinearities at the operating point. Terms of up to third order are used in the series expansions. If the optional parameter F2OVERF1 is not specified, .DISTO does a harmonic analysis. In this situationm, the distortion analysis in the circuit uses only a single input frequency, F1. F1 is then is swept over the specified frequency arguments in the .DISTO command (exactly as in the .AC command). Inputs at this frequency may be present at more than one input source, and their magnitudes and phases are specified by the arguments of the DISTOF1 keyword in the input file lines for the input sources (see the description for independent sources).
The Noise command line does a noise analysis of a circuit. OUTPUT is the node at which the total output noise is desired; if REF is specified, then the noise voltage, V(OUTPUT) - V(REF), is calculated. By default REF is assumed to be ground. SRC is the name of an independent source to which input noise is referred. PTS, Fstart and Fstop are .AC type parameters that specify the frequency range over which plots are desired. PTS_PER_SUMMARY is an optional integer that specifies the noise contributions of each noise generator for every PTS_PER_SUMMARY frequency points.
CUR stands for a transfer function of the type (output voltage)/(input current) while VOL stands for a transfer function of the type (output voltage)/(input voltage). POL stands for pole analysis only, ZER for zero analysis only and PZ for both. This feature is provided mainly for the situation of nonconvergence. This ensures that at least one of either the poles or zeros of the circuit can be determined. Finally, N1 and N2 are the two input nodes while N3 and N4 are the two output nodes. The ability to define these input and output nodes ensures complete freedom in the specification of the output and input ports, and thus the type of transfer function.
The sensitivity of OUTvar to all non-zero device parameters is calculated when the SENS analysis is specified. OUTvar is a circuit variable (node voltage or voltage-source branch current). The first form of this analysis calculates the sensitivity of the DC operating-point value of OUTvar The second form calculates sensitivity of the AC values of OUTvar. The parameters listed for AC sensitivity are the same as in an AC analysis (see "".AC"" above for more details). The output values are in the dimensions of change in output per unit change of input (as opposed to percent change in output per percent change of input).
The TF command defines the small-signal output and input for the DC small-signal analysis. OUTvar is the small-signal output variable and inSRC is the small-signal input source. If this line is included, SPICE computes the DC small-signal value of the transfer function (output/input), input resistance and the output resistance.
In a Transient Analysis, Tstep is the printing or plotting increment for the line-printer output. For use with the post-processor, Tstep is the suggested computing increment. Tstart is the initial time (if omitted it is assumed to be zero) and Tstop is the final time. The transient analysis always begins at time zero, so in the interval the circuit is analyzed to reach a steady state but no outputs are stored. In the interval the circuit is analyzed and outputs are stored. TMAX is the maximum stepsize that SPICE uses; for default the program will choose the smaller of either Tstep or (Tstop-Tstart)/50.0. TMAX is useful when one wishes to guarantee a computing interval which is smaller than the printer increment, Tstep.
The PLOT line defines the contents of one plot for one to eight output variables from the analysis defined by the PLtype parameter (DC, AC, TRAN, NOISE, or DISTO). The syntax for the OVI is identical to that for the .PRINT line and for the plot command in the interactive mode. There is no limit on the number of .PLOT lines specified for each type of analysis.
The FOUR (or Fourier) line controls whether SPICE performs a Fourier analysis as a part of the transient analysis. FREQ is the fundamental frequency, and OV1, ..., are the output variables for which the analysis is desired. The Fourier analysis is performed over the interval where Tstop is the final time specified for the transient analysis and the period is one period of the fundamental frequency. The DC component and the first nine harmonics are determined. For maximum accuracy TMAX (see the .TRAN line) should be set to period/100.0 (or less for very high-Q circuits).
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Figure 6. Correlation analysis of activation and maturation marker expression on MTB-specific CD4 T cells. The proportion of IFNγ+ MTB-specific CD4 T cells expressing activation and maturation markers after stimulation were plotted for CD38 and Ki67 (A), CD38 and HLA-DR (B), Ki67 and HLA-DR (C), CD38 and CD27 (D) on the y- and x-axis, respectively for samples from subjects with aTB from before and after treatment initiation (n = 109). The Spearman's rank test was used for statistical analysis.
Figure 8. Changes in TAM expression profiles on MTB-specific CD4 T cells upon treatment initiation reflect declining bacterial burden in sputum. A correlation analysis between time to stable culture conversion and the slope of CD38 and HLA-DR marker expression dynamics on IFNγ+ MTB-specific CD4 T cells is shown for the time interval from baseline to week 12 (A,B, n = 15), and from baseline to week 9 (C,D, n = 13), respectively, for subjects with accurately defined time point of less than 5 weeks between the last positive MGIT culture result and stable culture conversion. The Spearman's rank test was used for statistical analysis.